Psychotropic drugs are any means that have the ability to influence the functioning of brain mechanisms, regulating anxiety and releasing from compulsive behaviour or affective disorders. Some psychotropic drugs have been used not only in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, but also in the treatment of certain types of pain.
There are at least several types of psychotropic drugs. Most often, this classification includes such items as antidepressants, antipsychotics, normotymics, anxiety, sleeping pills and procognitive drugs. Although these agents differ in substances, they very often have a similar effect, which focuses on regulating certain patterns of behaviour, disorders and ailments.
Types of psychotropic drugs:
- Neuroleptics - agents otherwise known as antipsychotics, which act against delusions and hallucinations. In addition, they have a calming effect, inhibiting psychophysical stimulation. Most often these drugs are prescribed in the case of diseases such as schizophrenia, delusional psychosis or depression. There are several such substances on the Polish market.
- Antidepressants - medicines that affect centres responsible for mood and well-being. They regulate stress and relieve anxiety. The agents administered most often in the case of affective diseases, i.e. depression. Depressive drugs are often prescribed for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders, seizure anxiety, impulse control disorders such as bulimia or anorexia. There are about twenty substances.
- Normotymic drugs - drugs that are designed to stabilize mood and psychomotor drive. They're called mood stabilisers. The action of these agents is best suited to bipolar diseases. This group of drugs includes lithium carbonate, carbamazepine and valproate salts. Apart from lithium in its composition, all the others can be used in the treatment of epilepsy.
- Anti-anxiety drugs - most of the drugs in this group are based on benzodiazepine. Medicines that are potentially addictive and are therefore not recommended for long-term use. There are, however, clinically justified cases in which they are the basis for the treatment of diseases. Sometimes they are used to treat all mental disorders. Particularly needed when anxiety is severe, acute psychotic anxiety and seizures.
- Nootropic and procognitive drugs - a group of drugs that include neuroleptics activating and improving the processes of the central nervous system. Used in depression to stimulate metabolic processes in the central nervous system. They improve the flow of neurotransmitters.